Coal classification and composition analysis

Editor's note: According to the coal's coalification degree, all coal in China is divided into lignite, bituminous coal and anthracite coal. According to the characteristics of coalification and industrial utilization, lignite is divided into 2 subcategories, and anthracite is divided into 3 subcategories.

Bituminous coal is relatively complex, and is divided into 4 grades according to volatile content, namely Vdaf> 10 ~ 20%,> 20 ~ 28%,> 28 ~ 37% and> 37%, which are divided into low, medium, medium high and high volatile content bituminous coal. According to the cohesiveness, it can be divided into 5 or 6 grades, that is, GR.I. is 0 ~ 5, which is called non-cohesive or weakly cohesive coal; GR.I.> 5 ~ 20, which is called weakly cohesive coal; GR .I.> 20 ~ 50, which is called medium to weakly caking coal; GR.I.> 50 ~ 65, which is called medium to strong caking coal; GR.I.> 65, which is called strong caking coal. Among strong caking coals, if y> 25mm or b> 150% (for Vdaf> 28%, fat coal, b> 220%) coal, it is called extra strong caking coal. See GB5751-1986. The basic characteristics of various types of coal are as follows:

(1) Anthracite (WY). Anthracite has high fixed carbon content, low volatile yield, high density, high hardness, high ignition point, and no smoke when burning. No. 01 anthracite is old anthracite; No. 02 anthracite is typical anthracite; No. 03 anthracite is young anthracite. For example, Beijing, Jincheng, and Yangquan are No. 01, 02, and 03 anthracite, respectively.

(2) Lean coal (PM). Lean coal is a kind of bituminous coal with the highest coalification degree, which is not sticky or slightly sticky. No coking in the layered coke oven. When burning, the flame is short and resistant to burning.

(3) Lean lean coal (PS). Lean lean coal is a bituminous coal with high metamorphism, low volatile content and weak cohesiveness. Coking is worse than typical lean coal. When coking alone, more coke powder is generated.

(4) Lean coal (SM). Lean coal is a low-volatile medium-caking coking coal. It can produce a certain amount of colloid during coking. When coking alone, coke with large lump, few cracks and good shatter resistance can be obtained, but the wear resistance of coke is poor.

(5) Coking coal (JM). Coking coal is a bituminous coal with medium and low volatility, medium adhesion and strong adhesion. When heated, it can produce colloid with high thermal stability. When coking alone, coke with large lump, few cracks and high crushing strength can be obtained, and its coke wear resistance is also good. However, when coking alone, the expansion pressure generated is large, making coking difficult.

(6) Fat coal (FM). Fat coal is a strong, cohesive bituminous coal with low, medium and high volatile content. When heated, a large amount of colloid can be produced. When coking alone, it can produce coke with good meltability and high strength, and its wear resistance is better than coking coal coke. The disadvantage is that the coke made separately has more transverse cracks, and there is often bee coke in the coke root.

(7) 1/3 coking coal (1 / 3JM). 1/3 coking coal is a new coal type. It is a bituminous coal with medium to high volatile content and strong cohesion, and it is a transition coal between coking coal, fat coal and gas coal. Coking alone can produce coke with better melting and higher strength.

(8) Gas fat coal (QF). Gas fat coal is a kind of strong cohesive fat coal with high volatile content and colloid layer, and some are called liquid fat coal. The coking performance is between fat coal and gas coal, and a large amount of gas and liquid chemical products can be produced when coking alone.

(9) Gas coal (QM). Gas coal is a kind of coking coal with relatively shallow coalification. When heated, it can produce higher volatile matter and more tar. The thermal stability of colloidal body is lower than that of fat coal, and it can be coked alone. However, coke is mostly slender and fragile, with more longitudinal cracks, so the crushing strength and wear resistance of coke are worse than other coking coal.

(10) 1/2 medium sticky coal (1 / 2ZN). 1/2 medium sticky coal is a medium cohesive medium and high volatile bituminous coal. Some of them can form coke with a certain strength when coking alone, which can be used as raw material for coking coal blending. When a part of coal with poor adhesion is coking alone, the coke formed has poor strength and high powder coke rate.

(11) Weak sticky coal (RN). Weak sticky coal is a bituminous coal with weak cohesion from low to medium metamorphism. When heated, less colloids are produced. When coking alone, some can form small coke with very poor strength, while others only condense into small pieces of coke, with a high powder coking rate.

(12) Non-sticky coal (BN). Non-stick coal is a bituminous coal with a low to medium metamorphism that has undergone considerable oxidation in the early stages of coal formation. When heated, colloids are basically not generated. Coal has a high moisture content, and some of it also contains a certain amount of secondary humic acid, which contains more oxygen, and more than 10%.

(13) Long flame coal (CY). Long flame coal is a bituminous coal with the lowest metamorphism, from non-cohesive to weakly cohesive. The youngest of them also contains a certain amount of humic acid. It is easy to weather and crack during storage. Old coal with a high degree of coalification can produce a certain amount of colloid when heated. When coking alone, it can also be formed into a thin long coke, but the strength is extremely poor, and the powder coke rate is very high.

(14) Lignite (HM). Lignite is divided into two categories: young lignite with light transmittance Pm <30% and old lignite with Pm> 30-50%. The characteristics of lignite are: large moisture content, low density, no cohesion, and different amounts of humic acid, and high oxygen content in coal. Often up to about 15-30%. The chemical reactivity is strong, the thermal stability is poor, and the lump coal is severely broken when heated. Stored in the air, it is easily weathered and deteriorated, broken into pieces or even powdered. The calorific value is low and the melting point of coal ash is low. The ash contains more CaO and less Al2O3.

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